Student Name: Seth Benjamin

Student Number: 21173876

University of West London

Corse: BA Graphic Design (Hons)

Module: Ideas and Perspectives: AD50178E

Module Leader: Gerda Mackenzie

            Date of Submission: 7/1/2016

Word Count: 3046

 

Deconstruction Of Beauty

Are Women Represented Fairly In Advertisements Within The Sun?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of illustrations

 

Figure 1. No More Page 3 Sticks Pictures Of Men And Women In The Sun Side By Side With Revealing Results (02/Dec/2014 11:20 GMT), Digital Photography

 

Figure 2

McBean, AMBPeggy Ashcroft as Cleopatra in Antony and Cleopatra., 1953, Photography

 

Figure 3

ManRay, MR. Le Violon d’Ingres, 1924, Gelatin silver print, 29.6 x 22.7 cm,  Man Ray Trust ARS-ADAGP

 

Figure 4

Hans, MH. Vanity. 1485, Oil on wood. 22 x 14 cm, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Strasbourg

 

Figure 5

Del Monte ketchup ad. (1953).

 

Figure 6

Kruger, BK. Untitled (I shop therefore I am). (1987). Photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 111 x 113 inches. Courtesy Mary Boone Gallery, New York

 

Figure 7

Horst, HPH. Round the Clock, New York. 1986. Gelatin Silver Print

16 × 20 in.

 

Figure 8

Richardson, AR. Richardson Magazine. A4. 2003.

 

Figure 9

Newton, HN Vogue Helmut Newton 1977. 1977.  

 

Figure 10

Penn, IP. The 1940s, Dorian Leigh, 1949. 1949. Gelatine silver print, 41.9 X 32.8 cm, Gruber Collection

 

Figure 11-12

Newton, HN. They Are xoming 1981. 1981, Gelatine sliver print, 22.6 x 22.8 cm

 

Figure 13

Earlam, KE. 'Vicky Queen of The Jungle’, 2015, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Front page.

 

Figure 14

Holmwood, LH. ‘Exclusive Interview RITA’, 2015, The Sun: 9th and Dec, Front page

 

Figure 15

Payne, WP. ‘X Factor Louisa, 2015, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Front page

 

 

Figure 16

Dirvanauskas, GD. ‘Myleene’s looking spot on’, 2015, The Sun: 7th and Dec, Page 3

 

Figure 17

Gardner, LG. ‘Tinder booby traps’, 2015, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 3

 

 

Figure 18

Earlam, KE. ‘Pool The Other One, 2015,The Sun: 9th and Dec, Page 3

 

 

Figure 19

Dyson, ED. ‘Secret To Looking Hot’, 2015, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Page 3

 

Figure 20

Chilcoot, JC. ‘Get uour fest dress on’, 2015, The Sun: 7th and Dec, Page 36

 

Figure 21

Chilcoot, JC.  ‘Get Kitted sprout..at supermarket’, 2015,The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 36

 

Figure 22

Pearce, DP. ‘Other Model’s Verdict On Shapewear Undies’, 2015, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Page 36

 

Figure 23

Advertisement . ‘Shop Shockingly Sexy’, 2015, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

In this essay I am aim to discover if the advertisements found in The Sun newspaper depicts women in a reasonable way. I will be looking into the history surrounding The Sun and the public controversy the page three girls. I plan to use philosophical theory mainly the concepts of Roland Barthes to help find out why The Sun used the page three girls, and if the advertising in The Sun treat women or if they treat their models in the same way as the page three girls. I believe that by comparing the relationship between fashion photography and boudoir photography, and by comparing my findings to The Sun’s page three girls and the advertisements represented in it, I might be able to answer this question. I found during this essay that The Sun objectives women terribly, however the advertisements found within it do not; the advertisers seem to give women a fairly realistic and reasonable portrayal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay

 

The infamous Page 3 was first published in 17/Nov/1970 and ran until 22/Jan/2015. Throughout it’s life it brought much controversy to the subject of women’s place in the media and had spread many negative connotations and stereotypes of the female gender [1/1.5]. Holmes, the leader in the campaign No More Page 3, said that “women do things, say things, think things, and they're not just there to be looked at” [2]. In the campaign No More Page 3 the group did an experiment to show what six months of The Sun would looked like when comparing how men are women are represented. The results were quite astonishing and the portrayals of men and women were drastically different. Hardie said that [in] ‘the men's side I see real life,’ and [in] ‘ the women's side, it doesn't seem real. It's all manufactured.’[3/3.5] [Figure 1]. These portrayals of women, which The Sun publishes, are the same that can be seen thought advertising and art history. John Berger’s Ways of Seeing sums up the usage of women rather well. ‘To be born woman has to be born, within an allotted and confined space, into the keeping of men’ [4]. As such the way a woman is portrayed comes down to the way their body is manipulated or posed within a confined space. It’s in the same class as the rule of thirds and maybe even the use of the golden ratio.  It is definitely true that The Sun does represent women in a objectifying way, however the reason they would keep Page 3 for so long despite much controversy is rather peculiar. Even with an increase in sales Page 3 still seems unwarranted and a risky strategic move. Time has proven that the sales were unaffected by Page 3. ‘The Sun’s dropping of Page 3 at the end of January does not seem to have made any discernible difference to its circulation.’ [5] So my conclusion is that the tabloid feared a loss in sales if they dropped Page 3 or that the personal philosophy of The Sun is misguided and may have an improper view on the objectification of the female form. Both ideas seem very likely. Despite The Sun clothing the women on Page 3, I believe it does nothing to change the objectification, sexualization, and stereotyping of women. This is something I believe can be fully avoided at least to a certain degree if they were to stop using sexually provocative imagery of women. They would in turn also limit the amount they objectify women, although I don’t believe they can completely stop stereotyping as ‘clichés are the fastest way to express something’ [6] which is essential in the media. This would also hold true to advertising within The Sun, however there will be a large difference in the way things are portrayed especially in adverts “within an allotted and confined space” [4].

 

To further highlight, help distinguish and give reason to why advertisements might use sexual or stereotypical imagery despite the negative repercussions, we need to have a look into philosophy and the psychology of the human mind. I believe the best place to start would be the works of Roland Barthes in his book Image Music Text. He proposes the idea that a character can only be conveyed through a narrative or animated sequence. He suggests that it is the evidence of movement that allows us to distinguish a character. This means that a single image of a person will never be able to convey a narrative on its own, as an unmoving person is inanimate. Therefore it has as much of a connotation to death as it does character. ‘Is the definition of the character according to participation in a sphere of actions’ [7] A good example of this quote are the photographs of Angus McBean [8]. The photograph in [Figure 2] is straight from a theatre production and truly connotes a lot about what’s going on within the scene. It even conveys the archetypes of the characters being portrayed; yet it doesn’t show their character, as without a narrative we know nothing about them. In conclusion a single photo wouldn’t be able to convey any form of character, making a stand-alone image very ineffective for many types of advertising. 

 

Barthes also makes a very fascinating point by raising the idea that all posed images have a basic denotation and a hidden connotation. The model or the photographer would have put their own message within the photo through the body posture of the model or the directions given by the photographer. ‘The reader receives as a simple denotation what is in actual fact a double structure – denoted-connoted.’[7]. If we consider this statement to be justified then it has a massive implication on how anyone is represented in a posed image. This is because the concept of a ‘denotation-connotation’ [7] within a posed image comes with the underlying implication of objectification. [9] This quote from This Means This, This Means That is a nice way of expressing the theory of their being a form of objectification in all posed images. ‘Clearly there is something of an art to reading faces, but equally there is also something of an art to reading objects.’[10]. An amazing example of these theories surrounding the idea of the visual pose can be seen in the photographic works of ManRay [11] [12] [Figure 3]. This image denotes a woman with the marks of a violin on her back, although it connotes and personifies the objectification of women as she has been put on display like an object and is being compared to a musical instrument; something that purely exists to be played. These themes can be seen in most of ManRay’s works. Such subjects can also be seen in many historical paintings. ‘A naked body has to be seen as an object to become a nude…Nakedness reveals itself. Nudity is placed on display’ [4] [Figure 4] ‘The real function of the mirror was otherwise. It was to make the woman connive in treating herself as, first and foremost, a sight’ [4]. So in conclusion it is impossible for anyone to pose another person easily if it’s a nude image without objectify or sexualizing them. This is why many media outlets may not see it as immoral to objectify women in a certain way.

 

Another large point that Barthes brings up is that stereotypes are just the equivalent of modern-day myths; a result of basic semiotics and an unqualified observer. ‘Contemporary myth is discontinued. It is no longer expressed in long fixed narratives but only in ‘discourse’. At most it is a phraseology, a corpus of phrases (of stereotypes).’ [7] This theory is also supported in a few other graphic design based books. ‘Clichés survive long after the conditions that produce them are dead’ [6] ‘Although irritating, the cliché is probably better than anything else you can think of to replace it’ [6] ‘Stereotypes are sometimes helpful to us. They can give us a short-cut to understanding a certain thing or situation.’[10] So in a way these books point to stereotypes being a form of condensed linguistics, and they are something that can be extremely helpful in conveying an idea in short amount of time. This makes stereotypes an invaluable tool for all forms of media to exploit; however stereotypes do have one drawback. It’s the very origin of any stereotype being the idea of generalization of semiotics that will always have at least one offence connotation. This also makes stereotypes very misleading and somewhat impractical. ‘Clichés are inadequate since they do no more than ‘inspire us to believe that they adequately describe a situation while they’re merely grazing its surface’. [6] A good visual reposition of this idea is shown in Figure 5. This is the best example when trying to show how easy stereotypes can be conveyed and at the same time demonstrates how truly sexists and disrespectful they can be. I believe that stereotypes are used to maximize the chances of an advertisement getting it’s message across. However, much like clichés, they have been used to the point where they mainly now gain a negative reaction from the reader. Another thing to keep in mind is that a stereotype’s longevity is partly perpetuated by the media, which helps in the production of new stereotypes.

 

The last and maybe most important of Barthes theories demonstrates the neutralization of the visual message though the use of text. It’s a simple idea that changes the meaning of any given image entirely and gives a new prospective on all forms of media. ‘Formerly, the image illustrated the text (made It clearer); today the text loads the image, burdening it with a culture, a moral, an imagination.’ [9] This concept is put better context in the book This Means This, This Means That.  ‘Images on their own are often so open to interruption…. we might need to supplement them with words’ [10]. Another point Barthes makes about the use of text in the image is that much like the pose, text and images have a symbiotic relationship where the effect one has on the other is subject to space and size. ‘Secondly the effect of connotation probably differs according to the way in which the text is presented… headline and article are palpably separate from the image, the former by its emphasis, the latter by its distance; the first because it breaks the other because its distance the content of the image.’ [9] This is a very important point to consider as it has a drastic effect on how we view adverts and how we should view The Sun. The last point Barthes makes about text is that text has the ability to rewrite the denotation of the image entirely. ‘The text most often simply amplifying a set of connotations already given in the photograph. Sometimes, however, the text produces (invents) an entirely new signified which is retroactively projected into the image, so much to appear denoted there.’ [9]. The best visual representation of the relationship between image and text comes from the work of Barbara Kruger [13] [Figure 6]. This is good evidence of the fact that with a small amount of text, the entire meaning of an image changes. Therefore text has a very large role in how advertisers and tabloids represent women especially within the confines of a small-allotted space.

 

The last concept I would like to put forward is the idea of the seductive gesture and it’s link to advertising and boudoir photography. The first thing we should realize about the relationship between the seductive gesture and advertising is that all advertisers are very aware about how they use the female body to their advantage. If they show too much of the female figure, they run the risk of overshadowing the original message of the advert, as well as risking their company’s good name through negative assertion of the objectification of women. If they show too little of the model, having her in the advertisement may become pointless as the entire point of her is to attract the gaze of the viewer. ‘Though they looked sexy, their erotic appeal was carefully veiled in order not to interfere with the commercials message’ [14], This idea can be easily seen in the works of Horst P. Horst, who was a famous fashion photographer for the well-known Vogue fashion and lifestyle magazine. [Figure 7] [15]. Such a brilliant piece of seductive, risqué and yet clothed imagery could only come from a photographer that truly knows how to present the female form in all its provocative glory. Another thing that holds a lot of influence on advertisers’ choices is the idea of the sexual taboo and censorship. ‘Graphic resonations of sexual acts are taboo in some cultures and not in others (although sex itself it always taboo to some extent).’[14] This leads to most graphic artist making creative ways to censor the feminine body to keep the standards they are expected to live up to. A nice example is the image titled Richardson Magazine A4 [Figure 8]. By creatively using the name of the magazine, the designer was able to give a somewhat sexual allure whilst preserving the integrity of the magazine. These prerogative and sexual gestures are perfectly outlined in the book The Art of Boudoir Photography, ‘1. Brush your hair out of your eyes… 2.Shake out your hair… 3. Jump, run, skip or bounce… 4.Play with your clothing… 5. Shake it… 6. Twirl around… 7. Ask your subject to vocalize… 8. Any action involving women’s shoes is generally a good idea… 9. Run your hands along your body… 10. Close your eyes and…’[16]. If we compare these to most photos from the genre of fashion photography we should find many similarities. To put this to the test let’s look at one photo by fashion photographer Helmut Newton and one by fashion photographer Irving Penn. When we look at Vogue Helmut Newton, 1977 we can clearly see a few of the clichés of boudoir photography displayed by the model. The model is running her hands along her chest and her eyes are looking way from the camera; both of these actions are staples of the genre. A very high contrast coupled with hard a point of focus helps outline her feminine features and keep the viewer's attention on her despite the dog and blurred foreground [Figure 9]. The 1940s, Dorian Leigh, 1949 is a much more traditional example of fashion photography. The use of a high contrast and black background exaggerates the models outline and keep the viewer’s focus on her figure. Yet we can also see some the same tropes that we saw in Penn’s photograph. We see her eyes turned down and her left hand on her hip, which helps to keep the viewer’s focus on the clothing whilst using the model’s figure to its fullest. The added action of smoking helps to give movement and life to the woman. However no matter how a photographer portrays their subject, they will always be objectified in fashion photography as people in this genre are merely props or, at the very most, stand-ins for manikins [Figure 10]. The best photographs that noticeably show the thin veil between fashion and boudoir photography are two photographs by Helmut Newton [figure 11-12]. One of the most interesting things about these images is that they show how women can still be objectified even if they are fully clothed. It feels as if we are looking from the prospective of a person who is undressing these women with his eyes. Fashion photography will always objectify women and its relation to boudoir photography is too substantial to ignore, but thankfully most advertisers know how to keep a bit of integrity in their work. 

 

 

Now let us compare the concepts previously analysed with The Sun’s average front page and Page 3. [Figure 14] [Figure 15] [Figure 16]. All the images seen in these illustrations hold traits that are related to the seductive gesture. This coupled with large size of the font used show that these images are purely used to draw attention to the front page of The Sun. In a way these women seen on the front cover are just props to draw the viewer’s gaze. Another thing to note is out of the four issues of The Sun that I collected, only one of them didn’t have a woman depicted on the front cover. I also find it noteworthy that all of these newspapers managed to objectify women in one form or another on Page 3. They either used offensive titles and articles, or had the models pose provocatively with their hand on their head or by their side to exaggerate their feminine features. [Figure 16] [Figure 17] [Figure 18] [Figure 19]. The fashion advertising seen in The Sun is a lot less sexualized than I was expecting; almost no clichés of boudoir photography were used and all the women seen are represented in a non-objectified way (this includes the models wearing only underwear). [Figure 20] [Figure 21] [Figure 22]. Out of the four issues of The Sun there were only 164 advertisements, of which only 36 had representations of women in them. That is roughly 21% and I only found one image within these that I can truly say objectified, stereotyped and sexualized women [Figure 23]. The irony is that it’s the one kind of advert that I believe should have some right to be sexualizing, stereotyping, and objectifying women. This is because as a lingerie advert not only should it contain both elements of fashion and boudoir photography, but it also uses text and stereotypes to its advantage. It’s an advert that knows what it is trying to be, who its demographic is and where it is going to be placed. Therefore I feel that it is completely justified in objectifying women as anything that has a direct correlation to sex will always objectify people. 

 

In conclusion I believe that women are horribly objectified, sexualized and stereotyped within The Sun’s Page 3 and front cover. However due to the evidence I have gathered I feel that the advertising in The Sun is justified where there is use of the sexual gesture and manipulation of the reader. This is mainly because there is such a small amount that it shouldn’t cause much offence, especially as its use is necessary for the kind of company that it is representing. My view towards advertising within tabloids has been largely changed due to the advertisers nor the large conglomerates being responsible for objectifying women. It is the readers that need to take control of our own perceptions and whether we should agree with or condemn controversial subjects.  Roland Barthes said ‘we are now no longer beginning to let ourselves be fooled no longer by arrogant antiphrastically recriminations of good society in favour of the very thing it sets aside, ignores, smothers, or destroys; we know that to give writing its future, it is necessary to overthrow the myth: the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author.’[7]. Truly I believe this is the right direction in which our society should progress.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illustrations

 

Figure 1. No More Page 3 Sticks Pictures Of Men And Women In The Sun Side By Side With Revealing Results (02/Dec/2014 11:20 GMT), Digital Photography

::Downloads:o-NO-MORE-PAGE-3-570.jpg

Unknown (02/Dec/2014 11:20 GMT) No More Page 3 Sticks Pictures Of Men And Women In The Sun Side By Side With Revealing Results. Available At: https://www.pinterest.com (Accessed: /9/Dec/2015).

 

Figure 2

McBean, AMBPeggy Ashcroft as Cleopatra in Antony and Cleopatra., 1953, Photography

:tumblr_m8356lQbBd1qii0fqo1_1280.jpg

McBean, AMB. (1953) Peggy Ashcroft as Cleopatra in Antony and Cleopatra. 181A High Holborn London WC1V 7QX: Thames & Hudson.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3

ManRay, MR. Le Violon d’Ingres, 1924, Gelatin silver print, 29.6 x 22.7 cm,  Man Ray Trust ARS-ADAGP

:ingre-s-violin.jpg

ManRay, MR. (1924) Le Violon d’Ingres. West Germany  Hauptstr.9,1000 Berlin 62: Taco.

 

Figure 4

Hans, MH. Vanity. 1485, Oil on wood. 22 x 14 cm, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Strasbourg

:3f6bb94eefaa8b9e21be2ee7c7f29547.jpg

Hans, MH. (1485) Vanity [Oil on wood]. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Strasbourg.

 

Figure 5

Del Monte ketchup ad. (1953).

:53-4293-ketchup-1375133487.png

Unknown (1953) Del Monte ketchup ad. http://www.purpleclover.com:  http://www.purpleclover.com/ entertainment/694-sexist-ads/item/ketchup/ (14 Dec/2015/ downloaded: 14/Dec/2015).

 

Figure 6

Kruger, BK. Untitled (I shop therefore I am). (1987). Photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 111 x 113 inches. Courtesy Mary Boone Gallery, New York

::Downloads:Figuer 6.jpg

Kruger, BK. (1987) Untitled (I shop therefore I am). 300 Park Avenue South New York,NY 10010: Rizzoil International Publications Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 7

Horst, HPH. Round the Clock, New York. 1986. Gelatin Silver Print

16 × 20 in.

:Figure 7.jpg 

 

Horst, HPH. (1986) Round the Clock, New York. Taschen America, 6671 Sunset Boulevard, Suite 1508, Los Angeles, CA 90028,USA: TASCHEN.

 

Figure 8

Richardson, AR. Richardson Magazine. A4. 2003.

:Figure 8.jpg

Richardson, AR. (2003) Richardson Magazine A4. 361-373, City Road, London, EC1V 1LR: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

 

Figure 9

Newton, HN Vogue Helmut Newton 1977. 1977.

:Figure 9.jpgNe

wton, HN (1977) Vogue Helmut Newton 1977. Available at: http://www.spidersweb.pl/2013/04/helmut-newtor.html (10/Dec/2015).

 

Figure 10

Penn, IP. The 1940s, Dorian Leigh, 1949. 1949. Gelatine silver print, 41.9 X 32.8 cm, Gruber Collection

:Figure 10.jpg

Penn, IP. (1949) The 1940s, Dorian Leigh, 1949. Taschen America, 6671 Sunset Boulevard, Suite 1508, Los Angeles, CA 90028,USA: TASCHEN.

 

 

Figure 11-12

Newton, HN. They Are xoming 1981. 1981, Gelatine sliver print, 22.6 x 22.8 cm:Figure 11/12.jpg

Newton, HN. (1981) They Are xoming 1981. Taschen America, 6671 Sunset Boulevard, Suite 1508, Los Angeles, CA 90028,USA: TASCHEN.

 

 

Figure 13

Earlam, KE. 'Vicky Queen of The Jungle’, 2015, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Front page.

:Tabloids:dec 8th:Scan 1.jpg

Earla

m, KE. (2015) 'Vicky Queen of The Jungle’, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Front page.

 

 

 

Figure 14

Holmwood, LH. ‘Exclusive Interview RITA’, 2015, The Sun: 9th and Dec, Front page

:Tabloids:dec 9th 2015:Scan 3.jpg

Holmwood, LH. (2015) ‘Exclusive Interview RITA’, The Sun: 9th and Dec, Front page

 

Figure 15

Payne, WP. ‘X Factor Louisa, 2015, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Front page

:Tabloids:dec 15th:Scan 2.jpg

Payne, WP. (2015) ‘X Factor Louisa, The Sun’: 15th and Dec, Front page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 16

Dirvanauskas, GD. ‘Myleene’s looking spot on’, 2015, The Sun: 7th and Dec, Page 3

:Tabloids:dec 7th 2015:Untitled-1.jpg

Dirvanauskas, GD. (2015) ‘Myleene’s looking spot on’, The Sun: 7th and Dec, Page 3

 

Figure 17

Gardner, LG. ‘Tinder booby traps’, 2015, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 3

:Tabloids:dec 8th:Scan 9.jpg

Gardner, LG. (2015) ‘Tinder booby traps’, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 3

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 18

Earlam, KE. ‘Pool The Other One, 2015,The Sun: 9th and Dec, Page 3

:Tabloids:dec 9th 2015:Scan 4.jpg

Earlam, KE. (2015) ‘Pool The Other One, The Sun: 9th and Dec, Page 3

 

 

Figure 19

Dyson, ED. ‘Secret To Looking Hot’, 2015, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Page 3

:Tabloids:dec 15th:Scan 5.jpg

Dyson, ED.  (2015) ‘Secret To Looking Hot’, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Page 3

 

 

Figure 20

Chilcoot, JC. ‘Get uour fest dress on’, 2015, The Sun: 7th and Dec, Page 36

:Tabloids:dec 7th 2015:Untitled-2.jpg

Chilcoot, JC. (2015) ‘Get uour fest dress on’, The Sun: 7th and Dec, Page 36

 

 

Figure 21

Chilcoot, JC.  ‘Get Kitted sprout..at supermarket’, 2015,The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 36

:Tabloids:dec 8th:Untitled-1.jpg

Chilcoot, JC. (2015) ‘Get Kitted sprout..at supermarket’, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 36

 

 

 

Figure 22

Pearce, DP. ‘Other Model’s Verdict On Shapewear Undies’, 2015, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Page 36

:Tabloids:dec 15th:Untitled.jpg

Pearce, DP. (2015) ‘Other Model’s Verdict On Shapewear Undies’, The Sun: 15th and Dec, Page 36

 

Figure 23

Advertisement . ‘Shop Shockingly Sexy’, 2015, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 42

:Tabloids:dec 8th:page 42.jpg

Advertisement . (2015) ‘Shop Shockingly Sexy’, The Sun: 8th and Dec, Page 42

 

 

 

 

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[13]

Alberro, AA. Gever, MG. Kwon, MK. Squires, CS.  Foster, HF. and Kruger, BK. (2010) Barbara Kruger. 300 Park Avenue South New York,NY 10010: Rizzoil International Publications Inc.

 

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Berger,JB., Blomberg, SB., Fox, CF., Dibb, MD and Hollis, RH., (1972) Ways of Seeing. 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL: Penguin Books. Penguin Design Series 2008 016.

 

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en.wikipedia.org (5/Dec/2015, at 22:38) Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Page_3 (Accessed: 3/Dec/2015 ).

 

[1.5]

en.wikipedia.org (8 December 2015, at 16:43) Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sun_(United_Kingdom)#End_of_the_Page_3_feature_.28January_2015.29 (Accessed: 3/Dec/2015 ).

 

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Fletcher , AF. (17 July 2001) The Art of Lookng Sideways. Unknown: Phaidon Press

 

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Hall, SH. (2012) This Means This This Means That. 2nd Edition if not the 1st. 361-373 City Road London EC1V 1LR : Laurence King Publishing.

 

[14]

Heller, SH. and Vienne, VV. (2012) 100 Ideas That Changed Graphic Design. 361-373, City Road, London, EC1V 1LR: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

 

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McBean, AMB. (2009) The Photographs of Angus McBean. Thames & Hudson

 

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Mediatel Newsline (03 Dec 2014) http://mediatel.co.uk. Available at: http://mediatel.co.uk/newsline/2014/12/03/collage-reveals-the-suns-sexist-representation-of-women/ (Accessed: 7/ Dec/2015)

 

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Meola, CM. (2012) The Art of Boudoir Photography: How to Create Stunning Photographs of Women. 330 Hudson in New York City, New York. Pearson Education Limited

 

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Mibelbeck, RM. Thielemann, MBT. Goodrow, GAG. Haberer, LH. Pröllochs, UP. Slobring, AS. Taschitzki, TVT. and Zschocke, NZ. (1996) 20th Century Photography. Taschen America, 6671 Sunset Boulevard,Suite1508,Los Angeles, CA 90028,USA: TASCHEN.

 

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Molderings, HM. (2008) Man Ray & L. Fritz Gruber: Years of a Friendship 1956 to 1976. steidl/ Düstere StarBe 4/ D-37073 Göttingen: Steidl & Partners.

 

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TheGuardian  (10/Mar/2013 at 18.27) theguardian.com. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/media/2013/mar/10/anti-page-3-the-sun-campaigner (Accessed: 4/Dec/2015).

 

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TheGuardian  (10/April/2015 at 12.95) theguardian.com. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2015/apr/10/the-suns-sales-unaffected-by-its-dropping-of-page-3-models. (Accessed: 5/Dec/2015).

 

[3.5]

The Huffington Post (02/Dec/2014 at 11:59 GMT)  http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2014/12/02/no-more-page-3-the-sun-women-pictures-cut-out_n_6253238.html (Accessed: 9/Dec/2015)